All Praises is due to Almighty Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala, Peace and Blessings be upon the most perfect of creations, His Beloved Habeeb, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah SallAllaho Alaihi wa Sallam his noble Family and the illustrious Sahaba Riwanullahi Ta’ala Alaihim Ajma’een and all the pious servants of Almighty Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala.
LAWFUL AND UNLAWFUL ANIMALS
I. Hadrat Jabir reported that on the day (battle) of Khaybar the Messenger of Allah declared domestic asses, the flesh of mules, every beast of prey and every bird which preys with its talon to be unlawful. [Sunan Tirmidhi, Vol. 1, Page 273]
II. Hadrat Safinah reported, “I ate with the Messenger of Allah the flesh of a bustard.” [Mishkat, Page 361]
(a bird with a long neck, a long beak, grey-coloured, looks like a goose in its appearance) – [al-Mu’jam al-Wasit – Page 151]
III. Hadrat Abu Musa reported, “I saw the Messenger of Allah eating poultry.” [Mishkat, Page 361]
IV. Hadrat Abu Qatadah reported that he saw a wild ass and killed it. The Holy Prophet asked, “Have you any of its flesh?” They said, “We have a leg.” The Messenger of Allah was offered a piece, which he accepted and ate. [Mishkat, Page 359]
V. Hadrat Ibn-e-‘Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah has said, “Two dead creatures and two bloods have been made lawful for us. The two dead creatures are fish and locust and the two bloods are liver and spleen.” [Mishkat, Page 361]
VI. Hadrat Abu al-Zubair reported from Hadrat Jabir who reported that the Messenger of Allah has said, “What the sea throws up and is left by the tide (i.e. the fish) you may eat. But what dies in the sea and floats you must not eat.” [Mishkat, Page 361]
VII. Hadrat ‘Ikramah reported from Hadrat Ibn-e-‘Abbas – saying he was sure that he transmitted it back to the Holy Prophet – that he used to order snakes to be killed and he used to say, “Whoever leaves them fearing that they might come to take revenge does not belong to us.” (is not on our path) [Mishkat, Page 361]
VIII. Hadrat Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah has said, “Whoever kills a gecko with the first blow one hundred virtues are recorded for him; and less if he kills it with the second; and even less if he kills it with the third.” [Mishkat, Page 361]
1. It is Haram to eat Ghurab al-Abqa’ – a type of crow that eats the dead (like a vulture) as stated in al-Durr al-Mukhtar on Page 642 and also in al-Mu’jam al-Wasit Page 647.
2. Mahuka – a crow-like bird which resembles a cuckoo in its features is Halal [Radd al-Mohtar]. This is because the latter eats only grains and seeds whereas the common crow eats dead carcasses. [al-Bahr al-Ra’iq – Vol. 8, Page 313, Fatawa-e-Razawiyyah – Vol. 20 Pgs. 319-320, Firozul Lughat – Page 1364]
3. All sea creatures except fish are all Haram, such as a crab or a crocodile, an eel and so on. [al-Durr al-Mukhtar – Page 642]
4. There is disagreement amongst the scholars as regards prawn – is it considered in the group of ‘fish’ or not? Thus, it is best to avoid it.
5. If someone placed a substance (a chemical for example) by which the fish died, and it is known that the fish dided due to the cuase of placing that substance in the water, then that fish is still Halal. [al-Durr al-Mukhtar – Page 642]
6. A rabbit is Halal to eat. [al-Hidayah Page 425, al-Durr al-Mukhtar Page 642]
HUNTING AND SLAUGHTER
I. Hadrat ‘Adi ibn Hatim reported: I asked, “O Messenger of Allah! When anyone of us catches a game and has no knife, can he cut its throat with a flint and a splinter of a stick?” He said, “Let the blood flow with whatever you like and mention the Name of Allah.” [Mishkat, Page 358]
II. Hadrat ‘Adi ibn Hatim reported that the Holy Prophet has said, “Eat whatever is caught for you by a dog or a hawk (but the prey is not devoured by themselves) which you have trained and set off after mentioning the Name of Allah. I asked: “Even though it kills it (i.e. the animal)?” He said, “When it kills it without eating anything of it, because it has caught it for you.” [Mishkat, Page 358]
III. Hadrat Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah has said, “Whoever keeps a dog, except a sheepdog or a hunting dog or a farm dog, a qiraat of his reward is deducted daily.” [Mishkat, Page 358]
IV. Hadrat ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As reported that the Messenger of Allah has said, “Whoever kills a sparrow or any creature larger than that, Allah will question him about killing it.” It was asked: “O Messenger of Allah, what is the right of (these) birds?” He said, “To cut its throat and eat it, but not to cut off its head and throw it away.” [Mishkat, Page 359]
V. Hadrat ‘Aisha reported that (some) people said, “O Messenger of Allah! There are people here who have recently reverted from polytheism. They bring to us meat and we do not know whether or not they have mentioned the Name of Allah over it.” He said, “Mention the Name of Allah yourselves and eat it.” [Mishkat, Page 357]
VI. Hadrat Shaddad ibn Aws reported that the Messenger of Allah has said, “Allah the Blessed and Exalted has decreed kindness for everything. So when you kill, use a good method; and when you slaughter use a good method. You should sharpen the knife and give the animal as little pain as possible.” [Mishkat, Page 357]
1. There are 4 veins cut when slaughtering an animal; the windpipe (channel of breath), the gullet (channel of food and drink which lies beneath the windpipe), and the 2 carotid arteries which are two blood vessels on the sides of the neck encompassing the windpipe, they are called wadajain. [Bahar-e-Shari’at and al-Durr al-Mukhtar – Page 640]
2. If 3 from the 4 veins were cut or most part of each vein was cut, then the slaughtered animal is Halal.
3. It is Haram to eat an animal slaughtered by an infidel, a Wahhabi, an apostate, Dehriyah or a neichri, and every other heretic.
4. A Hindu said, “This animal has been slaughtered by a Muslim,” then to eat the animal is not permissible. If the Hindu said, “I have bought this from a Muslim,” then it is permissible to eat it. [al-Durr al-Mukhtar – Page 640]
5. If one did not mention the Name of Allah purposely, when slaughtering the animal, then the slaughtered animal has become Haram to eat. If one unintentionally forgot to pray it then it is Halal. [al-Hidayah Vol. 4 Page 419, Bahar-e-Shari’at]
6. Likewise, to slaughter in such a manner that the knife stroke reaches the cerebellum (the brain) or the head is chopped off then it is makruh (offensive) to eat the meat, though the meat is lawful (the offensiveness is in the method of slaughtering not the meat). [al-Hidayah, Bahar-e-Shari’at]
7. There are 22 things which are not permissible (to eat) from a sheep, a cow, or any other animal slaughtered:
e) Penis (the sign of a masculine).
f) Vagina (the sign of a feminine).
h) Blood in the arteries/veins.
i) The blood that is in the meat, that is left even after the animal has been sacrificed.
j) The blood of the heart.
k) Blood of the liver.
l) Blood of the spleen.
m) Gall bladder.
n) The bile (yellow substance) that is excreted from the gall bladder.
o) The gland.
p) Spinal Marrow (nukha’).
q) The two muscles/tendons of the neck which stretch till the shoulders.
r) The moisture that is in the nose.
s) Semen and sperm, whether the sperm of the male is found in the female (animal), or whether it is the animals own sperm/semen.
t) That blood which is created in the womb by semen.
u) That flesh which has formed in the womb by seminal fluid, whether the flesh has developed a body (with its parts) or not.
v) That animal which has been fully developed in the womb, but which came out (of the womb) dead, or died without slaughter.
8. It is permissible to eat the meat of an animal which has been sacrificed with the name of Allah ‘Azz wa Jall for the reward to be sent to any Friend (Wali) of Allah. The condition is that the Name of Allah is mentioned as such: “Bismillahi Allahu Akbar.”
9. If a trained hunting animal brought down a game animal, then it is lawful to eat it (the game animal) on the following conditions:
a. The hunting animal belongs to a Muslim and should also be trained
b. The animal did not die due to the pouncing upon it of the hunting animal, but due to the wound made by the hunting animal
c.The trained hunting aninmal was set free after the hunter mentioned the Name of Allah the Most Exalted (“Bismillahi Allahu Akbar”)
d. The animal reached the hunter before it dies, and thence, he mentioned the Name of Allah and then properly slaughtered it.
If any of the above conditions are not fulfilled; or if any condition is not found then the animal shall be unlawful to eat. [Khaza’in al-‘Irfan – Sadr al-Afadhil al-Sayyid Na’im al-Din al-Muradabadi]
10. The sign if an animal is for hunting or not is that if it is set free to hunt, then it shall run towards the prey (game), and if it is stopped then it stops. The trained hunting animal shall also leave the hunted animal (prey) for its owner, and shall not eat anything from it. This has been stated in Tafsir al-Jalalain Page 93.
11. If an animal which has been shot with a gun or with a bow arrow dies, then it is Haram to eat it. [Radd al-Mohtar, Bahar-e-Shari’at, Fatawa-e-Qadi Khan]
12. Hunting for mere enjoyment, entertainment, or amusement is Haram; whether the animal is shot with a gun or an arrow and whether it is fishing occasionally, or rarely.
13. Some people when fishing, place fish or toads (both of which are still living) into the rod to catch large fish. This is prohibited as one is giving pain to the animal. Likewise, some people catch fish by placing live earthworms or maggots into the rod; this is also prohibited. [Bahar-e-Shari’at – Vol. Chapter 17, Page 273]
14. Some people feel that it is disliked to work as a butcher. This is wrong, as there is nothing transmitted from anyone to say that such an occupation is disliked. [Bahar-e-Shari’at with reference from Radd al-Mohtar]
I. Hadrat Zaid ibn Arqam reported that the companions of the Messenger of Allah asked: “O Messenger of Allah! What is this sacrifice?” He said, “It is the practice of your father Abraham.” They asked, “What is the reward for us in it?” He said, “For every hair, you will be rewarded.” They asked, “for the wool, O Messenger of Allah?” He said, “For every strand of wool you will be rewarded.” [Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol. 1, Page 226]
II. Hadrat ‘Aisha reported that the Messenger of Allah has said, “On the day of sacrifice no one does a deed more pleasing to Allah than the shedding of blood. The sacrifice will come on the Day of Resurrection with its horns, its hairs and its hooves; and the blood finds acceptance with Allah before it falls on the ground.” [Sunan Tirmidhi, Vol. 1, Page 275]
III. Hadrat Hanash reported: I saw Hadrat ‘Ali sacrificing two rams. I asked him: “what is this?” He said, “The Messenger of Allah had enjoined me to sacrifice on his behalf; so I am sacrificing on his behalf.” [Mishkat, Page 128]
IV. Hadrat Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah has said, “Such a person who had the ability and means to sacrifice an animal, but (despite this) he did not do so; should never come near our Eidgah (place where the Eid prayers are performed).” [Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol. 1, Page 226]
V. Hadrat Umm-e-Salmah reported that the Messenger of Allah has said, “when you see the new moon of Dhul Hijjah and one of you intends to make sacrifice, he must not shave his hair, trim it, or clip his nails.” [Sahih Muslim, Vol. 2, Page 160]
1. For the condition of sacrificing, the Malik-e-Nisab is the person who possesses 52 ½ tolas (620 grammes) of silver or 7 ½ tolas (88 grammes) of gold; or they have the same amount equivalent to either of the above item in value in business goods or non-business goods, which are not goods that are the basic necessities of life. The wealth and/or property should be ‘extra’/above one’s basic necessities (hajat-e-asliyyah).
2. Nowadays, the price of silver is less. The price of silver in current-day value is approximately £2 per tola. Therefore, anyone who possess the value of: £2 x 52 ½ tola = £105 – which exceeds his/her basic necessities and also the debt which is to be paid back – then it is wajib on such a person to sacrifice an animal.
3. Such a Malik-e-Nisab who has already sacrificed an animal on behalf of himself, and the following year he is still a Malik-e-Nisab then again it is wajib upon him to sacrifice an animal on his behalf. This ruling applies for each year (that sacrificing is wajib if a person is a Malik-e-Nisab). It has been stated in a Hadith: “It is wajib upon every household to sdacrifice an animal each year.”
4. If a Malik-e-Nisab sacrifices on behalf of someone else, instead of sacrificing an animal on behalf of himself (i.e. does not sacrifice an animal on his behalf), then he has committed a great sin. Thus, if he wants to sacrifice on someone else’s behalf, then he should make preparations to buy another animal and sacrifice it.
5. Some people who think that, “It is wajib only once in a lifetime to sacrifice an animal on one’s behalf” is farce and wrong, which has no proof; as it is wajib upon a Malik-e-Nisab to sacrifice an animal on his behalf each year.
6. In villages, it is permissible to sacrifice animals on the 10th of Dhu’l Hijjah after the break of dawn (Subh-e-Sadiq). However, it is Mustahab to sacrifice it after sunrise. [Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri Vol. 5 Page 260]
7. It is not permissible to sacrifice animals before the Eid prayer in cities and towns. [Bahar-e-Shari’at]
8. Such a poor person – who cannot afford to sacrifice an animal – should also refrain from shaving or trimming hair and clipping nails; so as to resemble the pilgrims on the 10th of Dhul Hijjah.
9. It is permissible for a resident of a city or a town to send his animal to a person living in a village; and have it sacrificed before the Eid prayer; and then have the meat sent back to him in the city or town. [al-Durr al-Mukhtar]
10. It is not permissible to give the skin or the meat of the sacrificed animal as the wage to the butcher or the one who has sacrificed the animal. [al-Durr al-Mukhtar]
11. It is not permissible to give the meat of a sacrificed animal to any infidel.
12. The method of sacrificing an animal is to lay it on its left, such that its face is towards the Qiblah and then place the right foot on its side and holding a sharp knife (concealed obviously from the animal or if it is blind-folded then there is no harm).
13. if the Qurban has been performed on behalf of someone who has passed away, then the meat cannot be eaten by the person himself nor can it be given to a rich person. It is wajib to give all the meat to the poor as sadaqah. [Bahar-e-Shari’at]
14. The animal’s skin, reins, saddle etc should all be given in sadaqah, one can use the skin for their own usage, such as to make the skin into a leather bag or a prayer mat. However, one cannot sell the skin to someone else, and then use the money for their own benefit. If this has been done, then the money received should be given as sadaqah.
15. Nowadays, people give the animal skin to Madrissahs and other Islamic institutions. This is perfectly permissible. If one sells the skin with the intention of giving the money received to the Madrissa, then this is also permissible. [‘Alamgiri, Bahar-e-Shari’at]
16. The skin of the sacrificed animal cannot be given to the Imam as his wage. Yes, however, it can be given to him as a gift or for his benefit. [Bahar-e-Shari’at]
17. A camel must be at least five years old; a buffalo should be at least two years old; and a sheep, lamb or a goat should be at least one year old. [al-Durr al-Mukhtar]
18. The animal intended to be slaughtered should be big and health, and should be free from any faults or defects. If there is a minor defect in the animal, then the Qurbani will count, but it is Makruh. If there is a major defect, then the Qurbani will not count. [al-Durr al-Mukhtar, Radd al-Muhtar, Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri]
Some think that sacrificing one animal will suffice for one whole household; all of whom are Malik-e-Nisab. This is wrong. Each and every person from such a household should sacrifice an animal on their behalf. Yes, however, a household can share seven parts from a ‘large’ animal such as a camel, cow, buffalo etc.
The great Imam Ahmed Raza Khan has stated that the Ghurab al-Zar’ eats only grains, and is small and has a red/orange coloured beak. [Fatawa-e-Razawiyyah – Vol. 20, Page 320].
The common crow is classed as khabith in a Hadith, because “of all birds the carrion crow is the most detested by gamekeepers and country people who rear flocks of poultry, because it is the craftiest of egg thieves. Wild birds also suffer acutely from its depredations.”
[www.birdsofbritain.co.uk] It has also been mentioned on this website that, “outside the breeding season, crows often patrol the waterside, picking up carrion and attacking wounded birds in the shooting season. Some of them haunt beaches and estuaries where they eat shore-crabs and mussels, whose shells they crack by dropping them from a height.”
There is another species of the “crow” family called: the American Crow or Corvus Brachyvrhyncos. “American Crows eat a wide variety of foods, including: fruits, grains, nuts, acorns, snails, mussels, small birds, eggs, rabbits, mice, toads, crayfish, snakes, lizards, salamanders, rats, grasshoppers, cutworms, Junebugs, grubs, weevils, and other insects.”
It is quite surpirising to see that there were and still are some who call themselves as “scholars”, yet they declare things to be Halal which the Messenger of Allah declared Haram! Take for example, the common crow, which is classed as fasiq in the Hadith narrated by ibn Majah in his Sunan on the authority of Hadrat ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar [Sunan ibn Majah – Vol. 2 Page 294 – Hadith: 1036] and also in the same book there is also the Hadith narrated on the authority of Hadrat ‘Aisha in which the crow is named as fasiq, and cannot be eaten. [Sunan ibn Majah – Vol. 2, Page 293, Hadith: 1037]. Despite all this, these “scholars for dollars” have issued fatawa that to eat the crow is Halal! [see Fatawa-e-Rashidiyah – Page 296 and the Nawa-e-Waqt newspaper – 6th and the 7th of August 1976]